Thursday, May 9, 2019

Labrouste's Libraries, Structural Columns, and the Main Library

In a July 1996 article in the periodical Interiors reviewing James Ingo Freed's newly open San Francisco Main Library, the author notes the influence of Labrouste's 19th century Parisian libraries on the design of the newly opened San Francisco Public Library Main Library.

In fact, library administrators accompanied Freed and and collaborating architect Cathy Simon on a tour of European libraries in January 1900 where they visited Labrouste's two famous structures, the Bibliothèque Sainte-Geneviève (1850) and the Bibliothèque Nationale de France (1868). Both of these buildings have had an enduring influence on library architecture.

Labrouste's influence is apparent in George Kelham's 1917 Main Library building, particularly in  the first floor Entrance Hall and Stairwell and the second floor Delivery Room and Reading Room.

Stairwell of George Kelham's 1917 Main Library (source: San Francisco Historical Photograph Collection)

One of the striking innovations of Labrouste's libraries is the use of an exposed iron pillars to create open space and enhance natural lighting.

Reading room of the Bibliothèque Nationale (source: Henri Labrouste: Architecte)

 Tables interrupted by columns in the Bibliothèque Nationale (source: The Architecture of the École des Beaux-Arts)

Ground floor of the Bibliothèque Saint Geneviève (source: Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete)

Freed's Main Library design frequently uses exposed columns instead of embedding them within structural walls with the same desire for openness and natural light.

Rectangular pillars extend the height of the library and are incorporated into the building's structure as part of the borders to light wells on the library's Fulton Street and Larkin Street sides.

They are regularly spaced at intervals of 18 and 36 feet on the Fulton Street side of the building, and at intervals of 12 and 36 feet on the Larkin Street side.

In a previous entry we have seen how round pillars are also an important part of the building's conception.  These round columns are placed with less regularity on left and right sides of the atrium.  

I have numbered these pillars 1 to 14.  These also rise from the library's Lower Level and extend to the roof.  Numbers 6-13 are arranged as two groups of four pillars, spaced 18 and 12 feet apart.  The two groups of four in turn are 36 feet apart.  Pillars 6-7 and 10-11 surround an imaginary line that divides the length of the building in half.

Pillars 1 to 5 are positioned according to different imagined angled lines that extend from the midpoint of the Larkin Street outer wall and surround the outer edge of the atrium.  Pair 1 and 3 and pair 2 and 5 are placed along these lines.

The location of pillar 4 is tied to the position of pillar 2.  One of Freed's principal design elements for the Main Library is a juxtaposition of lines between streets on an east-west grid (Larkin, Hyde, Fulton, Grove) and Market Street (plus South of Market).  The fifth floor periodical reading room is laid out according to the angle of the latter.  Pillars 2 and 4 run parallel to Market Street.  On the opposite side of the floor, pillars 11 and 14 run parallel to 8th Street.

In the next installment I will show the variety of contexts where these rounds pillars appear on the Library's seven floors.


The Architecture of the École des Beaux-Arts, edited by Arthur Drexler (Museum of Modern Art, 1977.

Giedion, Sigfried, Building in France, Building in Iron, Building in Ferroconcrete; translation by J. Duncan Berry (Getty Center for the History of Art and the Humanities, 1995).

Herbert, Susan, "Library Travelers Check Out Europe's Best," San Francisco Independent (January 31, 1990).

"Rotunda Resonances in the San Francisco Main Library," San Francisco Public Library Art, Music and Recreation Center [blog] (March 25, 2019).

Saddy, Pierre, Henri Labrouste, architecte, 1801-1875 (Caisse Nationale des Monuments Historiques et des Sites, 1977).

Webb, Michale, "Library," Interiors vol. 155 (July 1996), 44-51.

Monday, April 1, 2019

Monthly Newsletter HOT OFF THE PRESS


The Art, Music & Recreation Center now has a monthly newsletter. Contents include collection highlights, programs, exhibits, and more! Sign up on our homepage @

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View April's Newsletter here

Monday, March 25, 2019

Rotunda Resonances in the San Francisco Main Library

The circle is a basic form and a common design element.  As we have seen in the previous blog post, a core architectural element of the San Francisco Public Library's Main Library is its atrium.  Inspiration for the library's atrium came to architect James Ingo Freed from the Altes Museum in Berlin, Germany.

Plans for the Altes Museum rotunda and the ground floor of the Main Library side-by-side

If one looks carefully at the Main Library's building plans, then one comes begins to see that the rotunda (Latin word for round) and circles permeate the building's design in many, many ways.  Once you start looking for circles in the Main Library, you begin to find them everywhere.

On the Library's ground floor plan, the circular atrium occupies a central space, but there is also a smaller circle below the atrium, slightly to the right.  On the plans this space is called a vestibule (according to the Historical Architecture Sourcebook it's "an anteroom or small foyer leading into a large space"). 

From the interior of the vestibule, the granite wall extends to the outside gate. Seen from outside the vestibule is a windowed space with a linear passage space with automatic doors.

Below the vestibule is the cafe on the Lower Level.

An upward view shows the windowed vestibule chamber supported by round, almost like a capital at the top of a column.
The vestibule is actually set atop two pillars above the cafe.  The ceiling about the cafe has a silver circle that surrounds the lighting.

The cafe floor has a central circle and radiating spokes that are a mirroring of the atrium's floor.  These expanding spoked circles directly beneath the vestibule.

source: The San Francisco Main Library: Space Planning, Design Development

The pattern is more evident on the paving plan of the Lower Level from the building's sketches.

The first floor also has a hidden structural round space that can be seen at the bottom center of the floor plan above (below the atrium, to the right of the vestibule).

This is a circular closet for the Friends of the San Francisco Public Library bookstore.

For regular visitors to the San Francisco Public Library Main Library building, the most frequently encountered round spaces are the affinity centers on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th floors.

The Steve Silver Music Center is typical of the rounded affinity centers on the 3rd, 4th and 5th floors.  The rooms have rounded light fixtures and a circular carpet; each room has two floor to ceiling windows

The Children's Storytelling Room on the 2nd floor is another good example of these round rooms.  The wooden walls follow a circular pattern as does a ring of lights, a wooden ceiling and a central circular light.  The carpet below incorporates blue circles that are intersect by crimson rectangle that incorporates the effect that the 5th floor reading room has upon the atrium's ceiling.

The reference desk of the Fisher Children's Center and the suspended glass sign are also rounded.

The book display space in the Center takes the form of a circle as well.

The opposite side of the library, at the Larkin Street entrance is shaped as a semi-circle.

Inside the library's atrium there are other circles on display.

The spiral staircase connecting the Larkin Street entrance to the Grove Street entrance is formed by concentric circles.  At the base of the staircase's railing there is a granite circle with a rectangle removed from it (again, like the carpet in the Children's Storytelling Room suggesting the newspaper reading room jutting into the atrium on the 5th floor).

The boundaries of concentric circles create the space taken by self-check out machines and the 1st floor information desk.

The double circle continues to extend into the floor plan of the upper floors.

It continues to be a design element on the third floor with a railing above the outer circle and an other white circle inside.  At the top left hand corner of the photograph there is a portion of a smaller ring is a component of the nautilus at the top of the atrium.

Although the circle is a rather ordinary design element, it appears in many other contexts in the library.

The sign directing visitors up the stairs from the 1st floor to the Fisher Children's Center is a circular.  Above it to the left, a semi-circle is used to mark the elevators and which floors they travel to.

Even the elevator call button itself is a circle.

Then there is the lighting.  The pillars surrounding the atrium have round fixtures with parallel glass circles projected outward.

The hanging lamp fixtures on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th 5th floors and 6th are also circular.

Finally there are the circular structural columns that extend upward from the Lower Level to the 6th floor at the east and west sides of the atrium.

Alice Aycock's site-specific artworks commissioned for the Main Library also grow out of the circle, but they will be discussed on their own later.

The circle only plays a small role in the building's external design.

There are four metallic ornamental columns above the Library's Larkin Street entrance. 

Another difficult to spot detail are the antefixes high atop the ridge of the rooftop on the Larkin and Hyde Street sides of the building that are formed from a pair of circle bisecting each other.  Joseph Giovannini, in his otherwise appreciate review of the Main Library, faults these antefixes as "little doodads, vetigial Roman decoration too slight to read from Marshall Square."

Perhaps all of these circles are not worthy of special note.  But they occur with such frequency that they must be more than coincidental.  While they result in a degree of formal consistency and elegance, the circles create some difficulty for library users.  On the upper floors, the rotunda shaped atrium disorients the public looking for a point of reference to navigate from.  The round pillars on the east and west sides of the atrium are treated decoratively instead of being incorporated into a wall, thus blocking sight lines and proving to be an obstacle when arranging desks or shelving.


Giovannini, Joseph, "Civic Readings," Architecture (July 1996), 80-91.

Historic Architecture Sourcebook, edited by Cyril M. Harris (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

The San Francisco Main Library: Space Planning, Design Development, April 25, 1991 (Pei Cobb Freed & Partners; Simon Martin-Vegue Winkelstein Morris, 1991). [part of the San Francisco History Center archival collection].

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

The Altes Museum and the Main Library

Responding to a question from Commissioner Sanger, Mr. Freed cited the Altes Museum in East Berlin (the "Old Museum," Berlin's oldest and Germany's second oldest museum, erected 1824-1830) as having partly inspired the atrium design.
This April 16, 1991 exchange between the late preservationist and San Francisco Library Commissioner Ellen Ramsey Sanger and architect James Ingo Freed reveals an important design inspiration for San Francisco Public Library's Main Library (completed in 1996).

Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Altes Museum, which according to Great Museums of Europe is one of the "finest examples of late Neoclassical architecture in Germany," is indeed a very lofty inspiration.  Schinkel is considered to have been the greatest German architect of the first half of the 19th century.

Like Freed's Main Library, the Altes Museum features a large circular open space in the building's center.

In the case of Schinkel's building this space is called the Rotunde, or rotunda.  Rotunda, the Latin word for round, means "a circular hall in a large building, esp. one covered by a cupola" -- a domed roof (see the Historic Architecture Sourcebook).

Google Streetview provides a virtual tour of the Altes Museum that starts at one of the entrances to the rotunda.

The view can be maneuvered upward to view the round glass dome / skylight at the summit of the building.  The attraction of a glass covered open space is the abundant natural light.

The central rotunda-like space at the Main Library is known as the atrium, a probably more accurate term since our space is not precisely capped by a dome.  Historically, an atrium is an open court to let in rain in a classical Roman house, but nowadays it means a vertical open space that connects multiple floors in a building.  (Unfortunately, sometimes during more intense El Niño storms our atrium has been known to let in rainwater).

Freed utilizes one of the significant feature's of Schinkel's rotunda -- linear spokes that radiate from a central circle into expanding circles.

This view from above shows Freed's central circle two steps above the plane of the rest of the Library's first floor, directly in front of the security gates at the bottom left of this photograph.

source: The San Francisco Main Library: Space Planning, Design Development

The Main Floor Paving Plan from the building's schematic drawings show this pattern much more clearly.  The center of the radiating spokes and circles is considerable distance from the atrium's center (in the photograph above, the center is the darker circle in the middle of the atrium).

This is significant because this shifted succession of circles is reflected at the atrium's top with the so-called nautilus.  (A subject for discussion in a later entry).

One distinct feature of Schinkel's Altes Museum that is absent from the Main Library is the gallery of classical statues at the rotunda's edge, looking into the central, open space.

This lack in the Main Library's atrium was remedied for a moment immortalized in film when movie stars Meg Ryan and Nicholas Cage visited our building.

In 1997, the feature film City of Angels, mostly set and filmed in Los Angeles, employed the then newly-opened Main Library as a location.  This movie is set in a world where there are invisible, silent angels who co-inhabit the human realm.  Nicolas Cage's character is an angel who has crossed over into the human world.  The gallery of dark human figures are angels who would be invisible to the mortal eye.

Fittingly, City of Angels is an English language remake of Wim Wenders' 1987 film Himmel über Berlin (literally, Heaven Over Berlin), released in the United States as Wings of Desire.  In this subtle way City of Angels brings the original Berlin connection full circle.

Speaking of circles, the rotunda / atrium form is integrated into the Main Library building in many ways that will be described in a later entry.

Great Museums of Europe: The Dream of the Universal Museum (Rizzoli International, 2002).

Historic Architecture Sourcebook, edited by Cyril M. Harris (McGraw-Hill, 1977).

Public Library Commission, Meeting Minutes (City and County of San Francisco, April 16, 1991).

Sammlung architektonischer Entwürfe enthaltend theils Werke welche Ausgeführt sind: theils Gegenstände deren Ausführung beabsichtigt Wurde von Carl Friedrich Schinkel (Ernst & Korn, 1858).

The San Francisco Main Library: Space Planning, Design Development, April 25, 1991 (Pei Cobb Freed & Partners; Simon Martin-Vegue Winkelstein Morris, 1991). [part of the San Francisco History Center archival collection].

Thursday, January 31, 2019

Carol Channing - A Product of San Francisco And Its Public Schools

Carol Channing spent her entire youth in San Francisco.  She was born in Seattle on January 31, 1921, but her family moved here when she young. She lived all of her public school years in San Francisco and only moved away from the Bay Area to attend college in the East.

Her father, George Channing, was born on November 21, 1888 and died May 29, 1957.  Her mother Adelaide Glaser was born in Nebraska on December 10, 1886 and died May 3, 1984 -- nearly as long lived as her daughter who recently passed away at the age of 97 on January 15, 2019.

Before she left for college in 1937 Channing learned from her mother of her father's African-American ancestry.  Although he claimed to have been born in Providence, Rhode Island, he was actually born in Augusta, Georgia. His father was German-American and his mother was African-American. Channing's official birth certificate lost in a fire evidently noted that he was "colored." After his father died, his mother moved north where he and his sister could pass for white and attend public schools.

He was born George Christian Stucker.  His sister, Alice Estelle Stucker, gave Georgia as her birthplace for the 1930 census. George Stucker/Channing must have been a remarkable student. He was awarded a scholarship to Brown University where he was an excellent orator and debater. In his senior year, 1911, he won Brown's Gaston Prize Medal for Excellence in Oratory.  He later studied law at Yale and went overseas during World War I as a corporal in the Artillery Corps.  Afterwards he worked in newspapers in Detroit and later was the city editor of the Seattle Star.

George Stucker's 1911 Yearbook Photograph (Liber Brunensis)

At the opening of her memoir, Just Lucky I Guess, Carol Channing recalled that his voice could alternate between "New England stentorian sounds" and a dialect imitation of Eugene O'Neill's eponymous Emperor Jones.  This ability to elide two manners of speaking and presentation made it seem natural to her to explore the vocal possibilities of character.

While living in Seattle her father became a Christian Scientist. When he moved to San Francisco he initially worked selling advertisements for the Christian Science Monitor.  The 1926 City Directory noted that for a time her worked as a salesman for a washing machine company.  Later directories listed him as a "Christian Science Practitioner" and as a member of the Christian Science Committee on Publication.  He was also a Christian Science worker at San Quentin prison.

George Channing - source: San Francisco Examiner (May 30, 1957).

Carol Channing was a precocious child who entered kindergarten at Commodore Sloat Grammar School at the age of four and a half. A bright and voracious reader, she was able to skip the second grade.  Channing described being in awe of her principal Miss Berard.  Elvina L. Berard had been principal the Commodore Sloat school from the time it was a one room school house in 1916 until 1940. In 1922 the school expanded and added the auditorium where a young Carol Channing gave her first "performance." 

Commodore Sloat Grammar School in 1927 (the auditorium is at the right)
source: San Francisco Historical Photograph Collection.

Miss Berard was a strong adult presence for young Carol.  In a 2008 interview she said that she "found every excuse to go into her office because I was so fascinated by the way she talked."  At home she would act out little tea parties with Miss Berard where she would serve her principal tea and then "turn into" her, imitating her "adenoidal" voice.

Carol Channing, age 7 or 8, at her family's Inner Sunset house, during her Commodore Sloat Grammar School days (source: Just Lucky I Guess)

Over the years Carol Channing would recall her stage debut at age 7 on the Commodore Sloat stage.  She had been nominated as school secretary and had to appear on stage to speak to the student body. She recounted:
You go up those five steps, and those steps are still there. I got up there; my knees were shaking. 
For her campaign speech she assumed the character of Miss Elvina Berard.  Everyone broke out into laughter, including her principal who "knew there was no malice." Channing recalled:
Well, the kids started to laugh, and I thought ... Oh! This is the most wonderful... I had never felt so close to people. It was closer than touching.

A plaque dedicating a tree to Elvina L. Berard on Arbor Day, March 9, 1931 at Commodore Sloat Elementary School

She moved on to attend the nearby Aptos Junior High School where she kept up her antics. She was happy to have "an entire new battery of faculty members and students to take home with me in my imagination." In addition to performing in plays she also participated in weekly variety shows at school assemblies.

Channing (right) as French song and dance man Maurice Chevalier at her families Portola Drive house in 1929.
Source: Rosenstein & Marchi, Hello Carol.

The already tall Carol Channing (back row, center) as a member of the Review Club at Aptos Junior School from the Aptos Journal, June 1934

Channing's earliest stage triumph and her first newspaper notice came from her May 1933 performance as Toad in the play Toad of Toad Hall at the Community Playhouse (the present day Marines' Memorial Theatre) at 609 Sutter Street.  She must have seemed boy-like playing her character because the reviewer from the Chronicle wrote of her performance: "He gave a confident, breezy performance of the part, brash, self-satisfied, the quintessence of egotism."

 Elizabeth Holloway (source: San Francisco Chronicle (August 17, 1924)

Channing gave this performance under the direction of Elizabeth Holloway and William Morwood. Holloway had been a teacher at the Children's Dramatic Studio, a school that encouraged the child "to give its own interpretation of the character."  The method practiced at the school aimed to "bring out originality and develop creative art."  She later opened the Elizabeth Holloway School of Theater.  Barbara Eden was another one of Holloway's illustrious students. (Eden describes attending the school because Carol Channing had mentioned studying there in a radio interview).

 Carol Channing (source: San Francisco Chronicle November 27, 1934).

In her next newspaper appearance, Channing appeared bedecked in stars and stripes for her performance as Columbia in an Aptos Middle School pageant entitled Builders of America.

Channing also trained at the San Francisco Operatic and Ballet School run by Adolph Bolm.  She regretted having to leave the program when she was"13 years 2.5 months old" because at five feet, nine inches she had grown too tall.

 Vice-President of the Debating Society, Carol Channing (from the Lowell High School Red and White, Fall 1936)

After completing her studies at Aptos Junior High School, Carol Channing attended Lowell High School, which even then was San Francisco's most academically rigorous public school.  At Lowell she followed the path of her father and joined the Debating Society.

Perhaps Channing's next stage triumph came in her junior year playing the role of Katherine Bence, the female lead in Kempy, the Lowell High School production from May 1937.  The Chronicle praised her performance writing that "displayed an innate sense of speech rhythm and grace of movement."

from the Lowell High School Red and White, Spring 1938

The Fall 1937 Lowell Yearbook also noted that Channing won the school's dramatics award "for her talented panoramic performance in the 'Varieties.'"  She also played a supporting role in Lowell High School's production of Captain Applejack later that yer.

The high school's drama teacher Samuel K. Polland would have her get up in front of the entire student body at assemblies to read the school minutes where she would do her impressions of the faculty.  She recounted learning a great deal from Mr. Polland (who was married to the aforementioned Elizabeth Holloway).
I learned not to be serious and how to feel out an audience. But most important, I learned to feel my way. As Mr. Polland kept repeating, 'Everybody has a way. You have to find your own now, Carol.' And he was so right.
from the Lowell High School Red and White, Spring 1938

Perhaps Channing attained the crowning achievement of her San Francisco days following in the footsteps as an orator.  She entered and won a local contest sponsored by a non-profit political organization called the California Crusaders.  The contest's theme was "American Citizenship and What It Means to Me."

Carol Channing with Floppet in her San Francisco Chronicle feature article of May 2, 1937

In a Chronicle profile she acknowledged that she preferred dancing and acting over public speaking. She based her speech upon a book that discussed the role of women in the modern world.  For her citizenship meant "freedom to develop the qualities I have, and the privilege of contributing them to my country."

She continued:
Let it not be supposed that feminine qualities are in any sense weak. Gentleness is as firm as ruthlessness is hard. What is more anchored, more dependable, more immovable than the mothering quality that gives life and therefore preserves it--that practices the art of self-preservation, art of avoiding war.
Carol Channing At Her Family's Kitchen at 1230 Washington Street in 1937 
image source: San Francisco Historical Photograph Collection

She won the San Francisco contest. She competed in the state finals on April 29, 1937 giving her speech before a crowd of 500 at San Francisco's Veterans Building auditorium. Her speech was persuasive and she won the contest and a trip to Hawaii.

Adelaide and Carol Channing on the manifest for the Malalo (source:

She departed for Honolulu with her mother Adelaide aboard the Malalo on June 24, 1937.  They returned about the Lurline on July 8.

Carol Channing aboard the Malolo bound for Hawaii (source: San Francisco Examiner April 12, 1971)

Channing's last show as a student at Lowell was a graduation present to her classmates. In song, dance and pantomime, sketches and blackouts, she took everyone on a hilarious throat-catching trip down memory lane, evoking all the student and faculty characters, all the big events "It was a last look at Lowell," she said, "and I cried at the end. Everybody cried."

During her San Francisco years, Carol Channing worked for a time as a model for I. Magnin.  But she was not all work and no play.  She recalled regularly going with friends on Saturdays to the Palace Hotel where they would dance the Suzy-Q, the Big Apple and the Lindy.

Although her career took her away from San Francisco, this account shows how much the San Francisco contributed to her later success -- both the public schools and the other creative venues that the city offered. She once said:
Performing in front of a school age audience is the best training one could have. If you can hold this impossible audience, you'll make it with others. 
In later years she often speak passionately about how the arts were so important to her in school.
The Arts bring creativity and critical thinking skills to other subjects within the schools' curriculum, not to mention enhancing social skills... The Arts truly fertilizes a young person's brains.
Toward the end of her life she formed ChanningARTS (Arts Returned To Schools) which helped fund the arts in public schools.  Without ceremony she donated funds for the theaters at her three almae matres -- Commodore Sloat Elementary School, Aptos Middle School and Lowell High School. In 2002 Lowell High School named the Carol Channing Theatre named in her honor.

 Carol Channing visiting Aptos Middle School (San Francisco Chronicle September 21, 2008)

The Aptos Journal (Aptos Junior High School, June 1934).

"Aptos To Give Pageant Again," San Francisco Chronicle (November 27, 1934).

"Ban Self-Consciousness: New Ideal Set For Dramatics," San Francisco Chronicle (August 17, 1924).

"Biographical Sketch," San Francisco Examiner (June 12, 1956).

Birch, Donna, "Lowell High Honors Star Grad," San Francisco Examiner (June 6, 1992).

"Carol Channing and Harry Kullijian: A True Love Story!," Richard Skipper Celebrities (May 10, 2011) [blog].

"Carol Channing 'On Stage' While Reading The Minutes," San Francisco Examiner (March 16, 1958).

Channing, Carol, Just Lucky I Guess: A Memoir of Sorts (Simon & Schuster, 2002).

"Channing Gets Lecture Post," San Francisco Chronicle (June 7, 1938).

"Churchman Geo. Channing Dies on Plane," San Francisco Examiner (May 30, 1957).

Eden, Barbara, Jeannie Out of The Bottle (Crown Archetype, 2011).

Geduldig, Lisa, "Credo: The Inside View," [interview] San Francisco Examiner (July 18, 2010).

Iquity, Sister Dana Van, "Carol Channing Speaks about Saving the Arts," San Francisco Bay Times (September 18, 2008).

"Just Who Is This Girl? Carol Channing -- And She's A Lass," San Francisco Chronicle (May 2, 1937).

Knickerbocker, Paine, "S.F.'s Carol Channing Stars in New Musical," San Francisco Chronicle (November 14, 1955).

Liber Brunensis (Brown University, 1911).

"Lowell Girl Wins Speaking Contest," San Francisco Examiner (April 14, 1937).

"Lowell High Students Give Kempy," San Francisco Chronicle (May 22, 1937).

"Obituary: Miss Berard S.F. Teacher," San Francisco Chronicle (September 24, 1940).

"Oratory Wins Trip To Hawaii," San Francisco Examiner (April 30, 1937).

The Red and White (Lowell High School Students Association, Fall 1936; Fall 1937; Spring 1938).

Rosenstein, Brad and Joseph J. Marchi, Hello Carol: A Celebration of Carol Channing (Museum of Performance and Design, 2008).

"S.F. Girl Gets Big Break in New Screen Comedy," San Francisco Examiner (November 27, 1948).

"S.F. Girl Stars on Broadway," San Francisco Examiner (January 22, 1950).

Torchin, Joseph, "When You're Dancing With Dolly," San Francisco Chronicle (January 18, 1978).

Warren, George C., "'Toad of Toad Hall' Enjoyed by All Ages," San Francisco Chronicle (May 24, 1933).

Winn, Steven, "Channing's Memories," San Francisco Chronicle (September 21, 2008).

Zailian, Marian, "It's So Good to Have Her Back Where She Belongs," S.F. Sunday Examiner & Chronicle (January 1, 1978).